Topic Name Description
Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 1 URL Chapter 1: Introduction: The environment at risk

Read the entire chapter. This resource will define several terms commonly used in environmental health and introduce you to basic concepts. Be sure to read the information in the Figures, as well as the text. 

URL Converging paradigms for environmental health theory and practice

Read the article. Please pay particular attention to the section entitled “Environmental Health” which details the history of theory and practice in environmental health.

URL Highs and lows of environmental health

Read the timeline of significant environmental health events on page 48. Are you surprised by how far in the past the timeline reaches? 

URL 10 facts on preventing disease through healthy environments

Read the introductory paragraph and scan through the 10 facts by clicking on the arrow on the image.

URL The impact of the environment on health by country: a meta-synthesis

This meta-synthesis focuses on the example of Brazil, but you can follow the links to read more about the environmental burden of disease in your country as well. If necessary, re-read the Methods section to fully understand how burden of disease is measured. 

URL Linkages between environmental and occupational health

Read the entire chapter. Be sure you understand how environmental and occupational health are often inextricably linked – there is a helpful summary at the end of the chapter. 

URL The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review

Read this journal article for an overview of the methyl isocyanate gas leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Think about what the author means when he says that the disaster has been both ‘ignored and heeded.’

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 2 URL Impact on human health

Read the document. This resource is a brief introduction to the human health effects of environmental hazards.

URL Health effects of chemical exposure

Read the report from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. This report will highlight health effects of selected chemicals on systems of the human body.

URL Knowns and unknowns on burden of disease due to chemicals: A systematic review

Read the journal article. This resource answers the following question: 'Which fraction of the current disease burden do chemicals cause, and which are the chemicals of greatest concern?' It is aimed at providing policy makers with the knowledge needed to set health protection priorities.

URL Cancer-Causing Substances in the Environment

Read the introductory page. Then, peruse the list of carcinogens by clicking on the links.  This resource presents substances in the environment that are known to cause or suspected of causing cancer in humans. 

URL Chapter Four: Quantifying selected major risks to health: Selected Occupational risks

Read the section entitled 'Selected Occupational Risks' on pages 73-77. This resource provides a brief overview of important hazards in the work setting. As you read this resource, keep in mind what you learned about the links between environmental health and occupational health in Module 1. 

URL Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis

Read Key Question No. 4 titled "4.  What are the most critical factors causing ecosystem changes?" (pages 64-70) and Key Question No. 5 titled "How might ecosystems and their services change in the future under various plausible scenarios?" (page 71-83) to learn specifically about intervention options in response to ecosystem change.

URL Summary

Read the summary to learn more about the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach.

URL Trade Secrets: A Toxic Journey

Watch the flash video to learn how PCBs move across the globe.

URL Coal minefires and human health: What do we know?

Read the entire article.

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 3 URL Human exposure assessment: An introduction

Read pages 1-37 and 51-87 from the book entitled Human exposure assessment: An introduction. This resource from the World Health Organization will provide you with an understanding of the role of exposure assesment in environmental health as well as details about doing exposure assessments.  

URL Biomonitoring and biomarkers: Exposure assessment will never be the same

Read this journal article about biomonitoring and biomarkers. Pay close attention to the benefits and challenges of biomonitoring.

URL Human exposure assessment: An Introduction

Read pages 87-94 for more information on the media commonly used in biological monitoring.

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 4 URL ToxTutor: Section 1: Introduction

Read the content of the two links titled “What is toxicology” and “Basic Terminology”

URL ToxTutor: Section 2: Dose and Dose Response

Read the content of the five links titled “Dose and its impact on toxicity”, “The dose-response relationship”, “Dose estimates of toxic effects”, “Determining the safety of drugs”, and “The highest dose without an observed effect and the lowest dose with an observed effect". Answer the review questions.

URL Mechanisms of Toxicity

Read the section titled "Introduction and Concepts" to learn about the mechanisms of toxicity.

URL A clash of old and new scientific concepts in toxicity, with important implications for public health

Read the journal article.

URL Environmental Health Risk Assessment: Guidelines for assessing human health risks from environmental hazards

Scroll down to chapter 10 titled "Use of epidemiological data" and read sections 10.1-10.6.  Pay attention to relative strengths and weaknesses of epidemiology and toxicology in the context of risk assessment.

URL Environmental Epidemiology: Challenges and Opportunities

Read the article. After completing the article, ask yourself the following question:  how are the challenges and opportunitites of environmental epidemiology different from challenges and opportunitites of social epidemiology?

URL Toxic Substances Portal

Click on the links titled "Acetone", "Chlorine", and "Carbon Tetrachloride" and read the content of those web pages. Explore the rest of this website to learn more about specific toxicants that interest you (optional reading).

URL The eco- in eco-epidemiology

Read this editorial entitled 'The eco- in eco-epidemiology' if you are interested in multi-level thinking in epidemiology.

URL Glossary of Terms

Browse this glossary from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to assess your knowledge of important terms.

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 5 URL Hazard and risk

Read the first three sections on this website to ensure that you understand the difference between hazard and risk.

URL Human Health Risk Assessment

Read the content of this web page as well as the content under the tab “Children & Risk Assessment”.  Then click on the link titled “Conducting a Human Health Risk Assessment” found on the left side of the web page.  Then, read the content of web page as well as the content of each of the tabs (stages 1-4) titled “Hazard Identification”, “Dose-Response”, “Exposure Assessment”, and “Risk Characterization”.

URL Human exposure assessment: An introduction

Read pages 44-48. This resource from the World Health Organization provides a succinct summary of risk assessment and risk management.

URL WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: Chemical hazards

Read the Drinking water Case-Study (pages 46-57).

URL Ecological Risk Assessment

Read the content of this web page as well as the content under the tab “Application”.  Then click on the link titled “Conducting an Ecological Risk Assessment” found on the left side of the web page.  Then, read the content of web page as well as the content of each of the tabs (phases 1-3) titled “Problem Formation”, “Analysis”, and “Risk Characterization”. As you read through this resource, note the similarities and differences between ecological and human health risk assessment processes.

URL Environmental Health Risk Assessment: Guidelines for assessing human health risks from environmental hazards

Explore the rest of this document (part of chapter 5 was read in Module 4) if you want to learn more about human health and ecological risk assessment.

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 6 URL Environmental health sciences decision making: Risk management, evidence, and ethics: Workshop summary

Click on the link "Read Online".  Then, read chapter 1 "Approaches to Decision Making" (pages 9-19) and chapter 2 "Scientific Issues in Environmental Health Decision Making" (pages 21-33). This book is the result of a workshop on environmental health sciences decision making convened to examine emerging issues in risk management.

URL Unit 6: Risk, Exposure, and Health // Section 9: The Precautionary Principle

In recent years,  the risk assessment and risk management framework for standard setting and regulation has been criticized. One possible response is to 'overlay' a precautionary approach on the risk management and policy-making process. Read this webpage as a brief introduction to the precautionary principle.

URL The precautionary principle: Protecting public health, the environment and the future of our children

Read chapter 5. This resource will further your knowledge about the role of the precautionary principle in environmental health decision-making and policy-making.

URL WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide

Read this report produced by WHO to guide the development of national air quality standards.

URL Environment fact sheet: REACH — a new chemicals policy for the EU

Read the fact sheet which briefly describes a European regulatory program initiated in 2006. The REACH regulation places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks from chemicals and to provide safety information on the substances.

URL Hazard Control

Read the web page from the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety to learn about workplace hazard control programs.

URL A Practical Guide to Public Risk Communication: The five essentials of good practice

Read the report to learn about the essentials of effective risk communication.

URL Ecosystems and human well-being: Health synthesis

Read sections 4 and 5 from the Millenium Ecosystem Assesment health synthesis report to learn speciffically about intervention options in response to ecosystem change. 

URL Chapter 43: Air and water pollution: Burden and strategies for control

Read from the beginning of the section titled “Interventions” to the beginning of the section titled “Research and Development Agenda” to learn more about possible interventions to reduce water and air pollution.

URL Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Introduction

Read the introduction section of the WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. As you read this resource, keep in mind what you have learned about exposure assesment, toxicology, and risk assessment in the previous modules.  All of these aspects play an important role in establishing guidelines aimed at protecting public health.

URL Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

Read the journal article (for those students wanting a better understanding of risk communication).

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 7 URL Children are not little adults

Read the powerpoint slides and accompanying notes.

URL Inheriting the world: The atlas of children's health and the environment

Examine maps number 3 (Traditional Hazards, New Risks), 4 (Water for All: Making it Happen), 5 (Hurry Up in the Toilet: 2.4 Billion are Waiting), 9 (Indoor Smoke: Breaking Down Respiratory Defences), 14 (Lead: IQ Alert), and 19 (Enjoying the Sun Safely). To help exlain map 14, ensure you examine "WHO Sub-Regions" found on page 49. Then, explore at least 4 additional maps that interest you. Do you notice any trends across the four maps that you have explored?

URL DrugFacts: Genetics and epigenetics of addiction

Read the article to understand the importance of gene-environment interactions. If you need a refresher on genetics in general, refer to this website from the US National Institutes of Health https://history.nih.gov/exhibits/genetics/sect1a.htm

URL Epigenetics and the burden of noncommunicable disease: a paucity of research in Africa

Read the article to understand the importance of gene-environment interactions.

URL Epigenetics: The science of change

Read the journal article explaining epigenetics. Be sure you are able to briefly describe epigenetics and why it is important after reading this resource.

URL Social and gender inequalities in environment and health

Read the policy brief. This resource should help you to identify links between social determinants of health and ecological determinants of health.

URL Children's environmental health -Training modules and instructions for health care providers

Select and read additional training modules of interest. Read the powerpoint slides and accompanying notes for these additional training modules.

URL Issues in health, environment and sustainable development: An overview

Read chapter 1 to learn more about the links between health, the environment, and sustainable development.

 

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 8 URL Climate Change 101: climate science basics

Read the entire fact sheet to learn about the basics of climate change.

URL Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: History of atmospheric carbon dioxide from 800,000 years ago until January, 2016

Watch the animation to see the time history of atmospheric carbon dioxide from 800,000 years ago until 2016.

URL Human health impacts of climate change for New Zealand: Evidence summary

Read the paper. You will learn about the possible health impacts of climate change and variabilty.

URL Protecting health from climate change: Connecting science, policy and people

Read the report. Focus your attention on the sections entitled 'Who is at risk?' and 'What can be done?'.

URL Healthy places: Exploring the evidence

Read the article.

URL Healthy Community Design Streaming Video

Download the video. For slow connections, read the transcript.

URL Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

Read the journal article.

URL WHO Human health risk assessment toolkit: Chemical hazards

Read the "Pesticide case-study."

URL The nine planetary boundaries

Read the web page to understand planetary boundaries and thresholds.

URL Changing planet: Infectious diseases

Watch this short video to learn more about the possible impacts of climate change on infectious diseases like Cholera and Dengue.

URL Atlas of health and climate

Download the full version of the atlas and explore the maps to learn more about the links between climate and health around the world.

Required readings, required activities and additional learning options for Module 9 URL Tools for thoughtful action: The role of ecosystem approaches to health in enhancing public health

Download the PDF version of the article and read the content.

URL Ecological public health

Listen to the podcast. Pay attention to similarities between the ecological public health perspective described in this podcast and ecohealth.

URL The ecosystem approach to health is a promising strategy in international development: lessons from Japan and Laos

Read the entire article to learn about the ecosystem approach to health.

URL The Ecology of Environmental Health

Read the entire article.

URL Reshaping the food system for ecological public health

Read the article. This resource is an example of applying an ecological public health perspective to food policy.

URL Non-randomized controlled trial of the long-term efficacy of an Ecohealth intervention against Chagas disease in Yucatan, Mexico

Read the article.